The woods were as the Indians had left them, but the boys who were playing there did not realize, until many years afterwards, that they had moved in as the Indians moved out. Perhaps, if these boys had known that they were the first white boys to use the Indians' playgrounds, the realization might have added zest to the make-believe of their games; but probably boys between seven and fourteen, when they play at all, play with their fancies strained, and very likely these little boys, keeping their stick-horse livery-stable in a wild-grape arbour in the thicket, needed no verisimilitude. The long straight hickory switches-which served as horses-were arranged with their butts on a rotting log, whereon some grass was spread for their feed. Their string bridles hung loosely over the log. The horsemen swinging in the vines above, or in the elm tree near by, were preparing a raid on the stables of other boys, either in the native lumber town a rifle-shot away or in distant parts of the woods.
Pulitzer Prize--winning poet Richard Wilbur (b. 1921) is part of a notable literary cohort, American poets who came to prominence in the mid-twentieth century. Wilbur's verse is esteemed for its fluency, wit, and optimism; his ingeniously rhymed translations of French drama by Moliere, Racine, and Corneille remain the most often staged in the English-speaking world; his essays possess a scope and acumen equal to the era's best criticism. This biography examines the philosophical and visionary depth of his world-renowned poetry and traces achievements spanning seventy years, from political editorials about World War II to war poems written during his service to his theatrical career, including a contentious collaboration with Leonard Bernstein and Lillian Hellman.
Wilbur's life has been mistakenly seen as blessed, lacking the drama of his troubled contemporaries. Let Us Watch Richard Wilbur corrects that view and explores how Wilbur's perceived "normality" both enhanced and limited his achievement. The authors augment the life story with details gleaned from access to his unpublished journals, family archives, candid interviews they conducted with Wilbur and his wife, Charlee, and his correspondence with Robert Lowell, Elizabeth Bishop, John Berryman, John Malcolm Brinnin, James Merrill, and others.
Thermal enrichment of coldwater streams by heated stormwater in summer months is often overlooked and even exacerbated by traditional management practices that typically account for flow moderation and pollutant removal only. Initiated in 1999, this study evaluated and identified innovative and traditional approaches to moderate this temperature impact by monitoring and analyzing the hydrologic and thermal regimes of an urban stormwater treatment system consisting of two traditional wet detention ponds and an enhanced natural wetland. Data analysis clearly shows temperature increases in the open detention ponds and the ability of the wetland to mitigate this thermal enrichment. Event-based thermal loading and temperature regime analysis indicated flow reduction via infiltration and effective vegetative cover in the wetland were the primary mechanisms for mitigating stormwater thermal enrichment. Using the concept of temperature equivalent, we also established the locations and strength of thermal enrichment areas. A heat transfer model was developed to simulate runoff temperature. Results indicated that rainfall characteristics, temperature difference between rainfall and the ground surface, and the runoff flow depth were the most important factors affecting runoff temperature.
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